Yefim Golyshev (8 September 1897 – 25 September 1970) was a Ukrainian-born painter and composer who was mainly active in Europe. After a successful career as a child prodigy violinist (his debut took place in 1905 with the Symphony Orchestra of Odessa and in 1909 he was awarded the Reger Prize from Berlin's Stern Conservatory), Golyshev became one of the founding members of the 'November Group', painting "anti-art" works and creating music for kitchen utensils and various new, invented instruments. Encouraged by Ferruccio Busoni Golyshev composed two opera's and a Symphonic Poem with 'scenic action' The iron Song (1920), that was partly played in Berlin. He took lessons from Wassily Kandinsky (a friend of his father) and founded together with Raoul Haussmann and Richard Huelsenbeck 'Berlin Dada'. At the same time he studied physics and chemistry and worked as a technical adviser for the TOBIAS soundfilm industry..He got in cotact with the filmmakers Eisenstein and Pudowkin and wrote for the latter a score to his film Igdenbu the big Hunter.
As a jew and a 'degenerate' artist, Golyshev had to flee from the Nazis in 1933, first to Portugal, then to Barcelona, where he worked as a chemist until 1938. After Franco's victory, he spent World War II in France, either in prison or hiding. Between 1956 and 1966 Golyshev, lived in São Paulo, where he influenced Brazil's Música Nova composers. He died in Paris in 1970.
Golyshev is notable for being the first dodecaphonist, see Trio